SPSS Homework: One-Sample t Test and Cumulative Questions
Assignment Instructions
Overview
This assignment is designed to increase your statistical literacy and proficiency in conducting and interpreting the one-sample t test, as well as to assess your cumulative knowledge of SPSS work in the course. You will be completing two one-sample t tests in SPSS, using data that are related to specific research scenarios in the behavioral sciences, such as psychology, social work, and counseling. You will also be completing two more problem sets that assess SPSS procedures learned in previous modules. Behind the scenes knowledge of how the one-sample t test is conducted is fundamental to being able to understand and apply research in your related field to your practice. Additionally, SPSS skills are professionally valuable, as it is one of the most commonly used statistical software packages in behavioral science settings, both academic and professional.
Instructions
• This assignment includes five problem sets that contain research scenarios and related questions: two for the one-sample t test, and three cumulative problem sets.
• For each scenario, you will run an analysis in SPSS. The required product for the one-sample t test will include the SPSS output, an APA-style Results section describing the results, and the appropriate graph inserted as a Figure in APA style.
• For the cumulative problem sets, paste your SPSS output directly into the homework underneath each relevant question. Type written answers into the document underneath the question to which they relate.
• For all t test problems, interpret results based on an alpha level of a = .05.
• This assignment is worth 100 points.
Please review the Watch: SPSS Homework Tutorial: The One-sample t Test under the Learn section in this module for directions on how to run the statistical test, as well as the Watch: Results Sections for the One-sample t Test in APA Style, which includes a template for completing the APA-style Results sections for the independent-samples t test. Review previous module presentations and homework feedback for the cumulative problems. The scenarios begin on the next page.
Problem Sets 1 and 2: The One-sample t test
Problem Set 1: Research Scenario: Do toddlers at a new preschool program exhibit different levels of attachment than the general population of toddlers? A developmental psychologist is studying attachment in a sample of 10 toddlers in a local preschool. She uses a measure on which higher scores indicate more secure attachments to caregivers, and the data are given in the table below. The population mean on this measure is 24.5. Using the data in the table, set up your data file in SPSS and conduct a one-sample t test to determine whether this sample has a different level of attachment to caregivers than the general population. Create a histogram to display the distribution of the sample’s attachment scores.
Attachment Security
12.5
23
32
24.5
19.5
17
13.5
23
27.5
32
1. Paste SPSS output of the t test here: (7 pts)
2. Write an APA-style Results section based on your analysis. Include your histogram as an APA-style figure as demonstrated in the APA writing presentation. (Results = 8 pts; Graph = 5 pts)
Problem Set 2: Research Scenario: Do adults at risk of Alzheimer’s disease score lower than the general population of adults on a measure of cognitive functioning? A neuropsychologist assesses the cognitive functioning of 17 adults who are at-risk for Alzheimer’s disease using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Higher scores indicate better cognitive functioning. The mean in the general population of healthy adults is 27.5. Using the data in the table below, set up your data file in SPSS and conduct a one-sample t test to determine whether this sample has lower MMSE scores than the general population. Create a histogram to display the distribution of the sample’s MMSE scores.
MMSE Scores
26
24
29
22
23
24
19
28
28
24
29
28
27
25
30
29
26
1. Paste SPSS output of the t test here: (7 pts)
2. Write an APA-style Results section based on your analysis. Include your histogram as an APA-style figure as demonstrated in the APA writing presentation. (Results = 8 pts; Graph = 5 pts)
Problem Sets 3-5: Cumulative
Problem Set 3: The IQ scores of 16 children in a fourth-grade classroom are displayed in the table below. The population mean for IQ scores is 100 ( = 100), while the population standard deviation is 15 (= 15).
IQ Score
116
77
110
96
121
99
86
144
101
89
83
96
110
129
78
83
1. Using the data in the table above, set up a data file in SPSS and create a table of descriptive statistics using the “Explore” command. Paste the table here: (5 pts)
2. Using the same data, create a histogram showing the distribution of IQ scores in the sample. Paste the histogram here: (5 pts)
3. Which measure of central tendency would you use to describe this data set? Support your answer with information from the presentations and/or reading this week. (5 pts)
4. Locate the outlier in the data set. Would you recommend this student for special education or for advanced classes? Why or why not? (5 pts)
Problem Set 4: An undergraduate Psychology student wants to examine the number of applications to doctoral programs in different subfields of Psychology. He collects data from a sample of schools in the US. He compiles the chart below. (The data here are based on real data taken from the web site of the American Psychological Association (https://www.apa.org/education/grad/survey-data/2016-report.pdf).
Enter the data in a new SPSS file. When creating the Program variable, be sure that the type is set to “String” in the Variable View so that the names will show up on the graph.
Subfield
Number of Applications
Clinical
Cognitive
Counseling
Developmental
Experimental
I/O
Neuropsychology
School
Social
Other
246
113
81
103
73
54
86
66
101
46
1. Using the data in the table above, set up a data file in SPSS and create a bar chart that shows the number of applications for each subfield. Paste the bar chart here: (5 pts)
2. What level of measurement is the variable “Number of Applications”? (5 pts)
3. What level of measurement is the variable “Subfield”? (5 pts)
Problem Set 5: The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, 2nd Ed. Standard Test (CARS2-ST) (Schopler et al., 2010) is an instrument used to assess whether very young children exhibit symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Fifteen items are assessed by a professional clinician. The scores can range from 15-60 (whole numbers only), and scores at 30 or above indicate that further assessment for ASD is warranted. A developmental psychologist completes the CARS2-ST for a sample of toddlers at a local day care. The results appear in the table below. They are entered as 2 columns here to save space (i.e., enter them in 1 column in your SPSS file).
CARS2-ST Scores
15
15
17
15
19
15
24
16
19
16
16
23
20
39
15
15
1. Using the data in the table above, set up a data file in SPSS and create a frequency table to show the frequency of each score on the CARS2-ST. Paste the frequency table here: (5 pts)
2. What percent of children have a CARS2-ST score of 15? (5 pts)
3. What is the frequency of children who have a CARS2-ST score of 19? (5 pts)
4. Using the same data, create a histogram in SPSS to show the distribution of the CARS2-ST data. Paste the histogram here: (5 pts)
5. Based on the scores obtained and the information in the scenario, should the developmental psychologist recommend any children in the sample for further assessment for ASD? If so, which one and why? (5 pts)
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